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Best content from the best source handpicked by Shyam. The source include The Harvard University, MIT, Mckinsey & Co, Wharton, Stanford,and other top educational institutions. domains include Cybersecurity, Machine learning, Deep Learning, Bigdata, Education, Information Technology, Management, others.

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      Egypt's New Leaders Retreat From Naming ElBaradei

    •  and 

      CAIRO—Egypt's new leaders backtracked late Saturday from reports that opposition figure Mohamed ElBaradei had been named as the country's interim prime minister.

    A spokesman for the office of the interim president said that Mr. ElBaradei, a leader of the secular groups who opposed ousted President Mohammed Morsi, hadn't been appointed prime minister. The official state news agency had earlier reported that Mr. ElBaradei would be sworn in Saturday, sparking criticism from Islamist supporters of Mr. Morsi.
    The spokesman, in a late night news conference broadcast on Egyptian state television, said discussions with various political parties were still under way over who would be appointed prime minister and help lead the transition following the military-led ouster of President Morsi.
    When asked if opposition from the ultraconservative Salafi Nour Party had lead interim President Adly Mansour to withdraw the nomination of Mr. ElBaradei, the spokesman said no. He added that several people, including Mr. ElBaradei, were being considered for the post.
    The spokesman, Ahmed al-Muslimani, said the erroneous report was a result of leaks to media. The Middle East News Agency reported that Saturday Mr. ElBaradei would be sworn in as interim prime minister later in the day. The Associated Press, citing a spokesman for the National Salvation Front, a secular coalition Mr. ElBaradei heads, said he had been chosen by Mr. Mansour.
    Tens of thousands of supporters of ousted Egyptian leader Mohammed Morsi continued their sit-in at Cairo's Rabia al-Adawiya Mosque on Saturday. Photo: Getty Images.
    Any appointment of Mr. ElBaradei would elevate him to a position in government for the first time since he entered the nation's political scene in 2010.
    It would also come at a time of deep discord in Egypt after the Islamist President Morsi was removed from office by the military last week following street protests that drew millions demanding he step down. On Friday, at least 30 people were killed in fierce clashes between Mr. Morsi's supporters and opponents.
    Tamarud, the newly founded youth movement that initiated the anti-Morsi protests on June 30 that ultimately led to Mr. Morsi's ouster, had chosen Mr. ElBaradei, a former diplomat and Nobel Prize laureate, as its representative.
    Mr. ElBaradei was among the important Muslim, Coptic and opposition figures that stood with Defense Secretary Gen. Abdel Fattah Al Sisi as he announced Mr. Morsi's ouster last Wednesday. He said he supported the military's decision and their "road map" to "rectify the course of the revolution."
    The reports of Mr. ElBaradei's nomination sparked frustration among Islamists on Saturday. The appointment of such a polarizing figure, so soon after the Islamists' humiliation at the hands of the military, appeared to some as salt on the Islamists' wounds.
    "He's an agent of the West who has put foreign interests over Egyptian interests," said Mohammed al-Nashar, a Muslim Brotherhood leader in Damietta province. "He has a long history of hostility to Islamists. His enthusiastic support for the military coup and arrests of our leaders has shown that he does not really believe in democracy."
    "This appointment and the military coup that brought him to power will take Egypt back to the Mubarak era," Mr. Nashar said.
    The news sparked claims of hypocrisy.
    "You criticize the Muslim Brotherhood and the Islamists for not sharing in their decision making, but then you do the same thing, but with a different approach," said Amr Mekki, a member of the Nour Party, the largest political group representing ultraconservative Salafi Islamists. "This isn't the way of democracy or the way of dealing with a country like Egypt like that," he said.
    Mr. ElBaradei's ascent would put the Nour Party in an awkward position, navigating the post-Morsi landscape without being seen as compromising their Islamist roots should they support a transition led by a figure widely seen as an obstructionist to Islamist political aspirations.
    "The Nour Party is important to this whole setup," said Michael Hanna, an Egypt expert at the New York-based Century Foundation. "There will be some consternation among the Nour Party and of course the Muslim Brotherhood."
    Mr. Mansour on Saturday met with representatives of political parties, the military and the judiciary at the Presidential Palace in Cairo to begin planning how to implement the military's transition plan, which calls for an interim government to rule Egypt while an appointed committee drafts a new constitution and new elections are held.
    The Muslim Brotherhood was invited to send a representative to the meeting, but refused, according to Mohammed Touson, a senior Muslim Brotherhood official who received the invitation.
    "If we had agreed to meet with the president it would have meant we recognized the legitimacy of the military coup," Mr. Touson said. "The only legitimate president we recognize is Mohammed Morsi."
    Those who attended the meeting included: Mr. ElBaradei; Court of Cassation Chief Justice Hamed Abdallah; Gen. Mamdouh Shaheen, a member of the Supreme Council of the Armed Forces; Abdel Moneim Aboul Fatouh, the former Muslim Brotherhood leader who quit the movement and ran for president as a moderate pro-revolution independent Islamist; a representative of the conservative Nour Party; and representatives of Tamarud.
    Mr. ElBaradei, a former head of the head of the International Atomic Energy Agency, returned to Egypt in 2010 and became a vocal critic of then-President Hosni Mubarak. Since then, he has been an enigmatic figure—once leading the popular uprising that brought down Mr. Mubarak, only to shun public office afterward in protest of the military-led transition.


    Snapshots from the streets in Cairo.
    Suhaib Salem/Reuters
    Mr. ElBaradei has developed a reputation as the principled dean of Egypt's political class—a respected, if somewhat withdrawn, voice of moral authority.
    Yet he rarely grants interviews or makes public appearances. Even when he has engaged politically, both his supporters and opponents have criticized him for taking potshots from behind the ramparts of social media.
    Mr. ElBaradei frequently weighs in on political events over his Twitter account—where he has 1.7 million followers—without actually making many public appearances.
    He ranks among Egypt's more stubborn opposition leaders, having led calls to boycott parliamentary elections that had been planned for this fall while refusing to respond to Mr. Morsi's frequent calls for dialogue with the opposition.
    Mr. ElBaradei has also emerged as one of the Islamists' strongest critics.
    "Some would see this as a move that would only further infuriate the Muslim Brothers," said Mazen Hassan, an assistant professor of political science at Cairo University. "Not only has their democratically elected president been deposed but one of their fiercest enemies has been appointed prime minister."
    "ElBaradei has never held an executive position in Egypt before," said Mr. Mazen. "He has certainly been the IAEA chief, but running the Egyptian government is different from any other organization."
    Mr. Hanna, of the Century Foundation, described the task of attempting to unite Egypt's fractured political players as a "Kamikaze mission."
    Still, he said, Mr. ElBaradei "is someone that lots of people, despite frustrations with him as a politician, believe has integrity."
    The political turmoil came as a relative calm prevailed over the streets on Saturday.
    Both sides continued to hold sit-ins and troops were in evidence on the streets. Debris from Friday's clashes littered the streets of downtown Cairo and its suburbs.
    Associated Press
    Egyptian soldiers stand guard Saturday atop armored personnel carriers outside the state TV station in Cairo.
    Friday's demonstrations made clear Islamists wouldn't quietly accept the military leaders' ouster of Mr. Morsi and deepened the rift between them and his critics.
    The leadership of the Muslim Brotherhood, the organization of which Mr. Morsi was a prominent member and which propelled him to power last summer, had called for peaceful demonstrations to voice outrage over his removal, but sections of the protests descended into violence between his supporters and security forces, as well as street battles with protesters who called for Mr. Morsi's resignation.
    Supporters of Mr. Morsi have vowed to stay in the streets until he is reinstated.
    In a sign of just how much the current crisis has shifted Egyptians' focus, a court proceeding in a trial that once riveted the population passed Saturday with barely any notice. Mr. Morsi's predecessor, Hosni Mubarak, appeared in a Cairo court Saturday for a hearing in his retrial on charges of corruption and involvement during the 2011 popular uprising that lead to his ouster. The retrial was adjourned to Aug. 17.
    —Reem Abdellatif contributed to this article.
    View at the original source

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    • Mideast Egypt

      Egyptian military soldiers stand guard atop armored personnel carriers at Maspero, an Egypt's state tv and radio station, not far from Tahrir Square in Cairo Saturday, July 6, 2013. Egyptians were on edge Saturday morning after supporters and opponents of ousted President Mohammed Morsi fought overnight street battles that left at least 30 dead across the increasingly divided country. (AP Photo/Hiro Komae)
    CAIRO (AP) — An opposition spokesman says pro-reform leader Mohamed ElBaradei has been named interim prime minister.
    Khaled Dawoud of the National Salvation Front, the main opposition grouping, told The Associated Press that interim President Adly Mansour will swear in ElBaradei on Saturday evening.
    ElBaradei has led the opposition to autocrat Hosni Mubarak, toppled by a popular uprising in 2011, and later to the Islamist president Mohammed Morsi, forced out by the military earlier this week in a move that has led to a new round of chaos in Egypt.
    El Baradei is a Nobel peace Laureate and a former director of the U.N. nuclear watchdog.

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    Doug Engelbart, Inventor Of The Mouse, Dies at 88

    Doug Engelbart, Inventor Of The Mouse, Dies at 88
    Family members report that Douglas Engelbart, American inventor and father of the computer mouse, passed away last night at the age of 88. 
    Engelbart made a number of groundbreaking contributions to computing. His pioneering work on human-computer interactions at Stanford Research Institute (now SRI) paved the way for his prototype of the first mouse in 1963. That invention led to the development of a range of modern technologies, including hypertext, networked computers, and precursors to graphical user interfaces.
    He was a dedicated evangelist of computers and their enormous potential for addressing urgent and complex problems, and was just recently featured in an article forThe New York Times titled "Who Made That Mouse?"
    Born in Portland, Ore., as the middle son of three children, Engelbart married his first wife, Ballard, who died in 1997 after 47 years of marriage. He is survived by his second wife, Karen, and his four children. 
    Here's a video of Engelbart and his colleagues presenting the computer mouse in its public debut in 1968. 

    Engelbart image via Wikipedia; Playground mouse image via Flickr user bfishadow, CC 2.0

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    We are in the middle of an Education Emergency:

    At this moment there are 57 million children without access to education and millions more who aren’t learning in school. Working together, we can lower that number to zero by 2015.
    On July 12 — less than a year after she was shot by the Taliban for her strong voice in this fight — Malala Yousafzai will mark her 16th birthday by delivering the highest leadership of the UN a set of education demands written by youth, for youth, to United Nations Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon.
    We can’t stand on the UN floor next to Malala — but we can all stand with her. Sign this letter to Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon to show your demand for emergency action in support for Malala’s education fight.
    Dear Mr Secretary-General,
    I stand with Malala in demanding that the leaders of the world end our global Education Emergency. After the recent violent murder of 14 girls in Pakistan who simply wanted an education, I support the civil rights struggle of 57 million girls and boys who will not go to school today — or any day. Side by side with Malala, we demand that at the United Nations General Assembly, world leaders agree to fund the new teachers, schools and books we need — and to end child labour, child marriage and child trafficking — so that by December 2015 we meet the Millennium Development goal promise that every boy and girl be at school.
    We must be united in this fight, and we must act now. Thank you for standing with us.

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    UK Joins Barrage Against Google's Privacy Policy

    The U.K. is joining France, Spain and Germany as nations that still have problems with Google.

    Google is facing a little July heat in the U.K. this week, as the Information Commissioner's Office there has ordered Google to update its unified privacy policy by September 20, or face fines of up to £500,000 (approximately $745,000).
    On the same day, the Hamburg Commissioner for Data Protection and Freedom of Information issued a similar order to get the Internet search company in line with the regional German office's expectations for the privacy policy.
    The problem with the privacy policy seems to be one that a lot of governments and their constituents are facing: the policy that Google has in place it too hard to understand.
    "In particular, we believe that the updated policy does not provide sufficient information to enable U.K. users of Google's services to understand how their data will be used across all of the company's products," the ICO wrote in a statement.
    Google's response to the ICO's order has been the same-old response they have always given: they are working with various government entities to comply with local laws and regulations. And they've had plenty of opportunity to trot out this line: last month, authorities in France and Spain issued similar warnings to Google.
    This is not the first time Google has been pilloried for this issue—the company faced quite a bit of criticism in the press and even from U.S. lawmakers when the unified policy was implemented back on March 1, 2012.
    Ironically, the unified privacy policy was meant to combine over 60 separate service's policies into one easier-to-use policy. Instead, even more questions have been raised.
    How Google will ultimately react to these orders is another question yet to be answered. The fine amounts aren't really anything for Google to be worried about, so there's not much incentive for them to pay anything more than lip service to the various national entities' entreaties. But if Google ignores these privacy concerns too much, they could run the risk of civil action in the courtroom, something that will cost them much more in terms of time, money and ever-precious public relations.
    Given the half the planet is looking askance at Google and other Internet companies for their alleged participation in the U.S. intelligence project known as PRISM, reputation is not a currency Google has a lot to spend.
    Public privacy and data commissions might be nickel and diming companies like Google, but a major court battle—or worse, unfriendly legislation—is something that can get even Google's attention.

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    Ten Things They Don't Tell You In Business School

    Listen up, budding Masters Of The Universe, and all those who dream of walking their path to wealth, power and spacious summer homes.
    At many business schools, boot-camp week–where the unwashed get a taste of debits, credits and such–starts in less than a month. After that, and just beneath the throb of your hangover (a B-school accessory), you will detect another inexorable rhythm–a faint ticking to be precise. This is the tell-tale heart to your two-year, $100,000 investment. The relentless reminder that you better get to learnin’ (or at least networking), lest you end up working for, and maybe getting laid off by, one of your classmates one day.
    Now for the good–or totally vexing–news, depending how you take it: After all the spreadsheets and cost-of-capital calculations, after all the case studies and Power Point presentations, after all the tuition money is gone and it’s just you and your pedigree, contacts and gumption, guess what?
    You get to start over again–in the real world.
    As anyone who employs people and writes checks will confirm, turning $1 into a $1.10 is a real bitch. Turning that $1.10 into $1.25, even tougher. I had to laugh the other day when a former colleague, now a partner at a boutique digital-marketing firm, sent me the following text out of the blue: “Generating positive cash flow is one of the hardest f—ing things in the world.” And then some, Matt.
    For all the wonderful instruction at places like Harvard, Wharton and my alma mater, the Stern School of Business at NYU, b-schoolers should remember that making money involves so much more than columns in a spreadsheet and the ever-shifting assumptions behind them.
    With that in mind, here’s a supplemental, 10-step curriculum:

    1. If It Ain’t Broke, Still Fix It
    One of the hardest decisions business owners have to make is turning their backs on cash when it’s flowing. But that’s exactly what you must have the courage to do sometimes to protect your franchise. Think about all those aggressive mortgage underwriters who scooped up fees by the shovelful during the housing bubble, when they should have been tightening their lending criteria. Or USA Inc., which ran deficits for years–because, well, our creditors didn’t seem to mind–and now faces a staggering $60 trillion fiscal hole (including the present value of all future obligations to its entitlement programs).
    2. If You Don’t End Up Working At Goldman Sachs, Forget What You Learned About Finance
    Discounted Cash Flow Calculator - is a tool to...
    Image via Wikipedia
    This one comes courtesy of one of my classmates, now finance chief for the unit of a large manufacturing firm, who would rather remain anonymous:
    “In a 12-year finance career with large respected companies (General Electric, Honeywell, BASF), I can count on two hands the number of IRR (internal rate of return), DCF (discounted cash flow) and NPV (net present value) analyses I have completed, and I am pretty sure that I analyzed exponentially more balance sheets in a classroom than I ever have in a boardroom. It is obviously important to be fluent in the language of finance, but as for the finance majors I hire (graduate and undergrad alike), I spend the first year or two retraining them.
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    “A career in corporate finance is nothing like what is taught in school,” he adds. “The job is largely to be the conscience of the business–expecting and demanding explanation for decisions and acting as an internal chief operating officer well versed in most topics (products, customers, manufacturing process, supply chain, etc). I am sure a career at Goldman or a hedge fund is different, but my guess is that life at most large companies lines up pretty close to my experience.”

    Image by dynamosquito via Flickr
    3. Take Your Financial Models With An Indiana-Jones-Sized Boulder Of Salt
    Another biz-school mate, now a health care consultant, chimed in with this stern admonition:
    “Too often people in business rely upon a model demonstrating projections out 15 – 30 years.” I was astounded: Fifteen tothirty, I confirmed? In school we worked in more modest 3-to-5-year increments, with an understanding that anything beyond that was magical thinking. “Believe it or not,” he went on, “I have seen some done out that far for deals [acquisitions] and often for public-private partnerships.”
    Find me an industry (save for perhaps utilities) where the assumptions you make today apply for three years, let alone 30. No, really, find me one.

    4. Overpromise And Try To Deliver
    Under-promising and over-delivering may work on conference calls with Wall Street analysts who need earnings projections for their valuation models. (GE made an art out of that game for years under Jack Welch.) But that strategy won’t always cut it when chasing new business to meet growth targets (or just payroll). Sometimes you will have to bite off more than your models–and your gut–say you can chew just to win the business. It’s an uncomfortable sensation at best, and a reputation-damaging maneuver at worst if you don’t come through. Get ready–and no tears.

    Dumb and Dumber
    Image via Wikipedia

    5. If You Don’t Know Who The Sucker Is, It’s You
    Yet another B-school colleague of mine, who probably plays too much poker, recalled this adage, a favorite around the halls of Forbes . “People are happy to take your money by pulling you off your home court,” he says. “Don’t let them. Deploy capital in ways that you understand not only intellectually, but also viscerally. Stick to home games–that’s where your instincts will flourish.”

    6. If No One “Owns” A Project, It Won’t Get Done
    Most people don’t put in long hours for their health, or to make shareholders wealthy, or because their families drive them nuts and they’d rather grind it out in the office. (Okay, sometimes that last part is true.) They do it because their job demands it, and with any luck they take a lot of pride in doing it well.
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    Which is why all projects need champions. Not the kind who beats his chest and spews happy mission statements. The kind who’s backside is on the line if things don’t pan out. More importantly, the kind who has the authority and resources to make decisions that other people have to follow, else theirbacksides are on the line.
    It’s not that people are lazy or incompetent (they may well be, but that’s a hiring issue). It’s that, over time, you get what you incentivize–or don’t.

    7. Be Clear
    They actually do tell you this one in b-school, but not in so many words and not vehemently enough. The clearer you are, the more thoroughly you probably understand what you’re talking about, and the more capable and trustworthy you will seem to customers, colleagues and employees.
    San Francisco in fog
    Image via Wikipedia
    Being clear has immense ramifications–on productivity, customer satisfaction and employee morale. If your Power Point deck contains the word “ideate,” cut, and do not paste. In fact, eliminate all jargon from everything you do. (If you think the word “utilize” is a smarter version of “use,” please, please read The Most Annoying Business Jargon.) This applies to electronic exchanges as well. The simplest, most straight forward emails can, and will, get twisted beyond meaningful comprehension. If the message is mission-critical, communicate face-to-face, or by phone, as best you can.
    8. Business Involves People
    People are a pain. They whine, mess up and have all sorts of problems. That’s why every now and again you should ask how they’re doing–and actually listen to the answer. It doesn’t cost a cent and helps lift spirits and build trust. (For more on bucking up the troops, check out 10 Ways To Boost Morale On A Budget.)

    9. Read Forbes
    Consider the source, but here are just two justifications for following this advice: Amid Turbulence, The Flight Plan That Sets Forbes Apart and What Makes A Good Business Story?

    New York University
    Image via Wikipedia
    10. Entrepreneurship Better Be A Labor Of Love (At Least At First)
    Some final words of warning–and encouragement–from a fourth classmate, who runs his own small clothing company: “Unless you have a partner, family member or some other person who has to give you capital, your [entrepreneurial] experience may amount to a salmon swimming upstream in a 2-inch deep river.” Inviting.
    That said, he adds: “Three years after graduation, I have to say my life is beautifully enhanced by my MBA. Kind of like when you need it, ideas descend in a timely, light and resonant fashion to help me cut to the chase.”
    I’ll second that.
    Have any valuable insights on business school, or on what it takes to turn a profit in the real world? Jot a comment on this post.
    And if you run a small business with real growth potential, or if you know someone who does, please nominate a contender for Forbes’ List Of Most Promising Private Companies.
    For now, class dismissed.

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    New technology is poised to disrupt America’s schools, and then the world’s

    In a school on the South Side of Chicago, 40 children between the ages of five and six sit quietly learning in a classroom. In front of each of them is a computer running software called Reading Eggs. Some are reading a short story, others building sentences with words they are learning. The least advanced are capturing all the upper- and lower-case Bs that fly past in the sky. As they complete each task they move through a cartoon map that shows how far they have progressed in reading and writing. Along the way they collect eggs which they can use to buy objects in the game, such as items to furnish their avatar’s apartment. Now and then a child will be taken aside for scheduled reading periods with one of the two monitoring teachers.
    The director of North Kenwood-Oakland school says this sort of teaching, blending software with human intervention, helps her pupils learn faster. It also allows teachers at this school—which, like other charter schools, is publicly funded but has some freedom to teach as it likes—to spend more time teaching and less time marking written work and leading pupils through dull drills of words and numbers. On top of that the school gains an accurate, continuous record of each child’s performance through the data its various programs collect and analyse.The idea that technology can revolutionise education is not new. In the 20th century almost every new invention was supposed to have big implications for schools. Companies promoting typewriters, moving pictures, film projectors, educational television, computers and CD-ROMS have all promised to improve student performance. A great deal of money went into computers for education in the boom of the late 1990s, to little avail, though big claims were advanced for the difference they would make.
    These claims were not entirely false: some bright, motivated children did use new technologies to learn things they would have missed otherwise. In many classrooms, too, computers have been used to improve efficiency and keep pupils engaged. But they did not transform learning in the way their boosters predicted. It is wise, therefore, to be sceptical about the claims made for the current wave of innovation. Yet there are also reasons to believe that a profound shift is occurring.
    Over the course of the 20th century mass education produced populations more literate, numerate and productive than any the world had seen before. But it did so, usually, in an impersonal manner, with regimented rows of children chanting their times-tables as Teacher tapped the blackboard with a cane. Schooling could never be tailored to each child, unless you employed lots of teachers.
    Teaching programs that monitor children’s progress can change that, performing a role more like that of the private tutors and governesses employed long ago in wealthier households. Data derived from each child’s responses can be used to tailor what he sees or hears next on the computer screen. The same data also allow continual assessment of his abilities and shortcomings, letting schools, teachers and parents understand both the pupil himself and the way human beings learn.
    Such learning—called “adaptive” in the trade—is not the only advantage technology offers to today’s teachers and pupils. Online resources, from wikis to podcasts to training videos, are allowing both children and adults to pursue education on their own, either instead of learning in schools or colleges or as a supplement. It is, in the words of Bill Gates, who follows developments in this area closely and whose foundation funds some of them, “a special time in education”.
    This is in part because it is a special time for information technologies in general. The capacity, and mindset, to design systems that use and make sense of large amounts of data gathered on the fly is coming of age. This makes it possible to track things like the “decay curve”, which governs a pupil’s fading recall of what has been taught. And more or less everything is getting remarkably cheap to provide, thanks to faster processing, widely available broadband and the resources of cloud computing. Mr Gates says that putting an hour of video online cost $400 in the late 1990s. Today it costs around two cents.
    The main reason for optimism, though, is the evidence coming in from classrooms. Adoption of education technology in America’s state-funded schools was given a boost by a requirement to measure pupil performance in the No Child Left Behind Act, signed by George W. Bush. Online learning was first picked up in some surprising places, including rural Idaho, where schools were looking for ways to expand the limited curriculums they were able to offer. Barack Obama’s Race to the Top initiative gave a further shove, making billions of dollars available to states willing to innovate. At the beginning of June his administration announced a plan to give 99% of America’s students access to high-speed internet within five years.
    Those schools that have pressed on have done rather well. Rocketship, a chain of seven charter schools in San Jose, California, blends traditional teaching with at least an hour a day of individualised online instruction in mathematics, literacy and comprehension. Its low-income pupils outperform those living in the wealthiest districts in the state. Over on the east coast Mark Edwards, superintendent of the Mooresville graded school district in North Carolina, introduced personalised learning on laptops for all pupils aged ten and over in 2009. His district is now one of the state’s leading performers, despite being close to the bottom in funding per pupil. Between 2009 and 2012 the share of its pupils considered proficient in maths, science and reading rose from 73% to 88%.
    As well as evidence from these schools, the effectiveness of particular bits of software has been studied. The Department of Education spent four years evaluating literacy programs; it concluded that Read 180, a program to help students who have fallen behind in reading, was good at combating adult illiteracy. A randomised control trial of Cognitive Tutor, which helps teachers identify weaknesses and strengths in maths, among 400 15-year-olds in Oklahoma found that children using the program reached the same level of proficiency as the control group in 12% less time.
    Meanwhile, the Khan Academy, a creator of online tutorials widely used as a form of home tutoring, is beginning to provide hard evidence for why it is considered one of edtech’s rising stars. At Oakland Unity, in tough inner-city Oakland, test scores for 16-17-year-olds in algebra and geometry have risen significantly in the two years since Khan courses were introduced. These courses are now being adopted by the Los Altos school district, also in California, which is already one of the best-performing in America. Khan Academy pinpoints the way in which edtech can turn conventional education on its head: in its “flipped classroom” pupils are no longer given lectures in the classroom and set problems as homework, but watch instructional videos at home and work on problems in class, where teachers and peers can help them.
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    In short, though, this latest wave of education technology is too new and eclectic to have proved its worth definitively. It is still mostly a matter of patching together different bits; only Amplify, the education arm of Rupert Murdoch’s News Corporation, claims to have a product (available on tablets) that offers an integrated curriculum for a child. Research also suggests that the way the technology is used in the classroom is at least as important as having it there. “It is appalling how little is actually known about the outcomes produced by various forms of online learning,” says William Bowen, once president of Princeton University and author of a new book on technology in higher education, a field that is also being revolutionised thanks to online courses known as MOOCs.
    This uncertainty has not stopped companies from wagering lots of money on its success. Several big education companies have been investing heavily in technology ever since the 1990s. Pearson (a part-owner of The Economist) says it has spent over $9 billion in the past decade on technological upgrades for its education business. News Corp is also taking a big bet on Amplify, run by Joel Klein, a former chancellor of schools in New York City (and one-time antitrust nemesis of Mr Gates). Amplify’s office, in an old warehouse in New York’s DUMBO district, contains not only classrooms, where students and teachers use new technology, but groups of former teachers working with software engineers, graphic artists, psychometricians and game designers to produce new content.
    Much of the new technology at Amplify and elsewhere leans strongly on what has been learned in the games industry and in social-network businesses. Games get pupils more engaged, says Nt Etuk, the founder of DimensionU, which develops interactive games to teach mathematics and science. A lot of programming, design and artistry go into creating apps where students can compete with or assist each other, and which reward successful activity. One of the main global mathematics websites, Mathletics—used by children in Pakistan, Saudi Arabia, Hong Kong, Britain and New Zealand as well as America—allows children to earn certificates, appear on international leader boards and earn “gold coins” which they can use to buy upgrades to their avatars. Kaplan, an education company owned by the Washington Post, has recently announced a partnership with Badgeville, a “gamification” specialist that works in all sorts of industries, to come up with learning games that can recognise good achievement by displaying badges on the screen.
    Other organisations funding the application of all this potential to education include companies who, like Pearson, are already established in education as providers of textbooks and other resources; companies already established in technology who see big new markets (Apple says it sold 3m iPads to American educational institutions last year); and companies established in other businesses who see edtech as a big opportunity.
    Then there are legions of start-ups, backed by an American venture-capital crowd that has proclaimed edtech to be the new thing. According to GSV Advisors, a consultancy, investment in edtech soared to $1.1 billion in 2012. The Education Innovation Summit held in Scottsdale in April was crawling with would-be investors; presentations from new companies were packed. Investment in the education sector in 2011 was almost as high in nominal terms as the peak, and was higher in terms of volume (see chart).
    Hurdles to jump
    Data-driven technology may have more impact on education in developing countries, but the first big wave of investment and experimentation is in America, which has a large technology industry, venture capitalists and philanthropists with experience in the field, and a culture of eagerly trying new things. It also has the promise of markets both large (the state school curriculum is increasingly uniform) and niche (in specialised schools).
    For all that, formidable barriers still exist to getting education technology into America’s schools. These range from the prosaic to the ideological. America’s 13,000 school districts still upgrade their texts and equipment on slow, unsynchronised cycles and follow a bewildering range of procurement processes. Glenn Anderson, a former Washington state legislator and consultant on education policy, emphasises that education is a highly regulated public utility in which rules can govern everything, from what goes into textbooks to how many children there are in a class. And local politicians can change rules or policy unpredictably. This causes problems for a start-up which wants to get its technology into a lot of schools. Andreessen Horowitz, a Silicon Valley venture capitalist, takes the problem so seriously that it avoids any edtech investment in which a school or school district would be the main buyer.
    One way round this is for small companies to be swallowed up by the education arms of established corporate giants. Wireless Generation, a personalised-learning firm that has become the core of Amplify, was bought by News Corp in 2010 for $340m. McGraw-Hill Education bought Bookette, a company that provides online performance measurement, in 2011, and an adaptive-learning company, Aleks Corp, in June. Pearson acquired Schoolnet, another personalised-learning firm, for $230m in 2011 and Embanet Compass, which provides online services to higher education, for $650m in 2012.
    Another start-up strategy, which avoids having to deal with the difficulties of winning procurement contracts in such a complex market, is to give the wares away. This, the companies hope, will convince students, teachers and parents to adopt the technology on their own or push to make it more available. Quizlet offers a flashcard tool this way; Noodle, a course-recommendation service; Chegg, help with homework. Their theory is that once the technology is widely used it will be easier to persuade schools to spend money on expensive offerings.
    Persuading schools to buy is only the first step, though. America’s teaching unions fear a hidden agenda of replacing properly trained humans with some combination of technology and less qualified manpower, or possibly just technology. Unions have filed lawsuits to close down online charter schools, including what looks like a deliberately obtuse proposal to limit enrolment at such virtual schools to those who live in their districts.
    These concerns are not completely unfounded. Teachers at Rocketship’s schools in San Jose earn 20% more than the local going rate, but will have up to 100 children in a class when they are working one-to-one in online learning laboratories. This gives Rocketship lower costs compared with schools of a similar size. It also means fewer teachers per pupil. Unions also suspect that more technology implies heavy-handed monitoring of teacher performance, a worry reinforced when Mr Gates proposed putting a camera in every classroom to help with assessments.
    The promise in all this for teachers is less drudgery, since some of their duller tasks can be automated, and interesting new challenges as they work out how to reorganise their classes. If the technology can be used as an extra pair of hands in the classroom, teachers will find it possible to do more. The American Federation of Teachers has invested $10m alongside TSL Education, a British firm, in a joint venture called, a website that lets teachers share lesson plans and other tips. Lore, a New York start up recently acquired by Noodle, has developed a platform somewhat like Facebook where teachers can share coursework and grades, and where pupils can converse with their teacher and each other. A similar network, called Edmodo, lets parents in too.
    Even if teachers and their unions can be persuaded, two worries will linger. One is what all those pupil-data will be used for. “We get millions of data points per day,” says Jose Ferreira, the founder of Knewton, a New York company which offers ways of adapting content to individual pupils, and makes it easier to spot when a pupil will fail. “We know more about our users than any company has ever known about anyone.” As with any enterprise involving big data, it is possible to imagine such stores of information being misused.
    The second worry is that the benefits of all this change may end up disproportionately with the rich, the bright and the highly motivated, who already make most use of online resources. The worry may be misplaced, though. Used properly, edtech offers both the struggling and the brilliant a route to higher achievement. The point is to maximise the potential of every child.
    As the Council on Foreign Relations reported recently, America continues to slip down the international rankings in education, falling during the past three decades from first to tenth in the educational level of those leaving high school, and from third to 13th for college students. Education technology could reverse this trend—if it is not jinxed by politics, bureaucracy and outdated institutional structures. Countries where it is not now have the chance to race ahead.

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    Trying To Understand Gen Y? Get Comfortable With Being Uncomfortable

    This article is by Noah Kerner, co-founder and CEO of Noise, which helps clients innovate for the 18-34 market.
    Millennials Jam Workshop: Youth and ICTs beyon...
    (Photo credit: itupictures)
    Gen Y has been given a bad rap. Lazy, entitled, job-hopping, socially impaired ADD tech-addicts – that’s what we’ve been told about them. But that’s not the full story.
    When I compare this generation to my own, I see a lot to admire. Growing up in the 80s and 90s, we were proud of making mix tapes (better than 8-tracks but not by much). Gen Y is mashing up the entire world’s content on the Internet.
     Instead of working hard to look cool, they love being smart. Instead of sneakers, smartphones are the ubiquitous status symbol. Instead of navel-gazing, Gen Y is making it happen.  My generation dreamed of making millions on Wall Street. Today’s young people dream bigger – building startups that change the world.Whether we like it or not, this generation is the future of our businesses. So we need to understand what makes Gen Y so different…and promising.
    1. For Gen Y, technology is more than an addiction. It’s how they discover, understand and experience the world around them. And it’s how they always have, which means they have vastly different expectations than you do.
    Bottom line: It’s time to radically shift to the cadence of 24/7 connectivity. Launching a few online campaigns a year won’t cut it nor will content calendars prepared a month out. They want new, all the time. Maybe it’s time for your campaign release cycles to mirror those of fashion retailer Zara? A new campaign released every Monday. There’s no time like this second.
    2. For Gen Y, more is more. According to a recent JWT Intelligence report, 70% of Gen Y say that they want to visit every country, and 75% say they want to travel as much as possible. But it’s not just wanderlust: more than 70% would rather spend money on an experience than on a material item.
    Bottom line: They are voracious livers of life and collectors of experience. They may be digital creatures, but they love the real world. To gain their loyalty, help them discover the unknown and share the unexpected. The hackneyed boardroom phrase is “surprise and delight” but yea, surprise and delight as often as possible. How about changing your logo every day? Google GOOG +0.79% does it.
    3. Gen Y will not tolerate BS. According to anMTV Insights report, 70% claims “if a company is unfair with me, I’ll figure out how to make things fair.” And whatever you think the purpose of your business is, recent Deloitte research found that 36% of Gen Y globally believes that the purpose of business is to improve society.
    Bottom line: Be transparent. Avoid any manufactured mystique. Think about how your business impacts our culture and find ways to improve that impact. It’s good business anyway.
    4. Gen Y doesn’t want to be like Mike, they want to be like Mark. In other words, it’s cool to be smart. It’s also cool to put those smarts to use, which they will do whether asked or not.
    Bottom Line: Rather than accepting the rules, they’ll be making their own. And remaking them. Expect that and get in on it.
    5. Gen Y live and learn visually. Instagram, a purely visual social network, appeals to Gen Y more than any other age group. YouTube is now the second largest search engine after Google. And half of Gen Y said that, according to MTV Insights: “people my age see real life as a video game.”
    Bottom line: An image tells a thousand words. A thousand words will go unnoticed.
    Take another look at this so-called lazy, go-nowhere, entitled generation. Though they are demanding, they are also sophisticated consumers and optimistic visionaries. Learn to speak their visual language. Invite them in to participate in the making and remaking of your brand. As uncomfortable as it may be, it’s worth it to get this generation deeply involved in your business as quickly as possible. So get comfortable being uncomfortable.

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    A Test to Measure How Rational You Really Are

    George Dvorsky
    George Dvorsky

    Standard IQ tests are problematic on many levels — not least, because they do very little to tell us about the quality of our thinking. Looking to overcome this oversight, psychologist Keith Stanovich has started to work on the first-ever Rationality Quotient test. We spoke to him to learn more.
    Keith E. Stanovich is Professor of Human Development and Applied Psychology at the University of Toronto. The author of over 200 scientific articles and seven books, he, along with Richard West, was recently given a grant by the John Templeton Foundation to create the first comprehensive assessment of rational thinking — a test that will ultimately determine a person's 'rationality quotient'.

    And indeed, the value of rationality and “good thinking” tends to be diminished by the importance we place onintelligence. But as we learned from Stanovich, the two often have very little to do with each other.
    Don't standard IQ tests already measure for rationality — and doesn't intelligence correlate with rationality?
    IQ [tests] do not at all directly assess processes of rational thinking, as they are defined by cognitive scientists.
    This is why a separate test is needed to assess RQ. We — my colleague Richard West and I — were led many years ago to through our longstanding interest in the heuristics and biases research program inaugurated by Daniel Kahneman and Amos Tversky several decades ago.
    This all got started back in 2002 when Kahneman won the Nobel Prize in Economics (Tversky died in 1996). The press release for the award from the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences drew attention to the roots of the award-winning work in “the analysis of human judgment and decision-making by cognitive psychologists.”
    Kahneman was lauded for discovering “how human judgment may take heuristic shortcuts that systematically depart from basic principles of probability. His work has inspired a new generation of researchers in economics and finance to enrich economic theory using insights from cognitive psychology into intrinsic human motivation.”
    One reason that the Kahneman and Tversky work was so influential was that it addressed deep issues concerning human rationality. Their work, along with that of many others, has shown how the basic architecture of human cognition makes all of us prone to these awful errors of judgment and decision making.
    But being prone to these errors does not mean that we always make them. Every person, on some occasions, overrides the tendency to make these reasoning errors and instead makes the rational response. It is not that we make errors all the time. Even more importantly, our research group has shown that there are systematic differences among individuals in the tendency to make errors of judgment and decision making.
    And the fact that there are systematic individual differences in the judgment and decision making situations studied by Kahneman and Tversky means that there are variations in important attributes of human cognition related to rationality — how efficient we are in achieving our goals.
    This fact is curious because most laypeople are prone to think that IQ tests are tests of, to put it colloquially, good thinking. Scientists and laypeople alike would tend to agree that “good thinking” encompasses good judgment and decision making — the type of thinking that helps us achieve our goals. In fact, the type of “good thinking” that Kahneman and Tversky studied was deemed so important that research on it was awarded the Nobel Prize. Yet assessments of such good thinking are nowhere to be found on IQ tests.
    Are you interested in how cognitive biases affect rationality? Which ones should we be most aware of?
    Absolutely. Cognitive biases are an essential part of the modern definition of rationality in cognitive science.
    To think rationally means taking the appropriate action given one’s goals and beliefs — what we call instrumental rationality — and holding beliefs that are in synch with available evidence, or epistemic rationality. Collectively, the many tasks of the heuristics and biases program — and the even wider literature in decision science — comprise the operational definition of rationality in modern cognitive science (see my book Rationality and the Reflective Mind, 2011).
    Let me give you some examples of instrumental rationality and irrationality:
    • The ability to display disjunctive reasoning in decision making [e.g. Either the Sun orbits the Earth, or the Earth orbits the Sun. The Sun does not orbit the Earth. Therefore, the Earth orbits the Sun.]
    • The tendency to show inconsistent preferences because of framing effects [e.g. saying a ‘glass is half empty’ can often be more persuasive than suggesting the inverse; this is somewhat related to the negativity bias]
    • The tendency to show a default bias [a.k.a. the status quo bias in which we hold a preference for the way things currently are]
    • The tendency to substitute affect for difficult evaluations [sometimes when we have to answer a difficult question we actually answer a related but different question without realizing a substitution has taken place]
    • The tendency to over-weight short-term rewards at the expense of long-term well-being [which is also referred to as the current moment bias]
    • The tendency to have choices affected by vivid stimuli [e.g. men have been shown to make poor decisions in the presence of an attractive female]
    • The tendency for decisions to be affected by irrelevant context
    Likewise, they have studied aspects of epistemic rationality and irrationality, such as:
    • The tendency to show incoherent probability assessments
    • The tendency toward overconfidence in knowledge judgments
    • The tendency to ignore base-rates [a.k.a. the base rate fallacy; sometimes we don’t take new information into account when making probability assessments]
    • The tendency not to seek to falsify hypotheses
    • The tendency to try to explain chance events
    • The tendency toward self-serving personal judgments
    • The tendency to evaluate evidence with a myside bias [where we only seek out perspectives that are sympathetic to our own]
    • The tendency to ignore the alternative hypothesis
    You just started a 3-year project to create the first comprehensive assessment of rational thinking. Why do we need such a thing?
    All of the biases and processes listed above will be on our prototype measure of rational thinking that will be the outcome of our grant from the John Templeton Foundation. It is necessary to assess them directly on such a test because none of them are directly assessed on IQ test.
    However, there is an important caveat here. Although the tests fail to assess rational thinking directly, it could be argued that the processes that are tapped by IQ tests largely overlap with variation in rational thinking ability.
    Perhaps intelligence is highly associated with rationality even though tasks tapping the latter are not assessed directly on the tests. Here is where empirical research comes in — some of which has been generated by our own research group. We have found that many rational thinking tasks show surprising degrees of dissociation from cognitive ability in university samples. Many classic effects from the heuristics and biases literature — base-rate neglect, framing effects, conjunction effects, anchoring biases, and outcome bias — are only modestly related to intelligence if run in between-subjects designs.
    Most rational thinking tasks correlate to some degree with intelligence, but the correlation is almost always moderate enough (.60 or so at the very highest) to still create many cases where intelligence and rationality are out of synch. Hence my coining of the term dysrationalia in the early 1990s.
    And what do you mean by "dysrationalia"?
    I coined the term dysrationalia — an analogue of the word dyslexia — in the early-1990’s in order to draw attention to what is missing in IQ tests. I define dysrationalia as the inability to think and behave rationally despite having adequate intelligence. Many people display the systematic inability to think or behave rationally despite the fact that they have more than adequate IQs.
    One of the reasons that many of us are dysrationalic to some extent is that, for a variety of reasons, we have come to overvalue the kinds of thinking skills that IQ tests measure and undervalue other critically important cognitive skills, such as the ability to think rationally.
    What are some examples of a person exhibiting low rationality? What are some unexpected or lesser known "risks" of not thinking completely rationally?
    In my book What Intelligence Tests Miss (2009), I begin with a discussion of David Denby (NY Times writer) and John Paulos (math professor) making disastrous person investment decisions. I also discuss how many feel that George W. Bush was dysrationalic.
    But in terms of specifics, here are some irrational thinking tendencies to consider:
    • Physicians choose less effective medical treatments
    • People fail to accurately assess risks in their environment
    • Information is misused in legal proceedings
    • Millions of dollars are spent on unneeded projects by government and private industry
    • Parents fail to vaccinate their children
    • Unnecessary surgery is performed
    • Animals are hunted to extinction
    • Billions of dollars are wasted on quack medical remedies
    • Costly financial misjudgments are made
    Is rationality something that's innate? Or is there hope for people with low RQ?
    Rationality is not entirely innate. It is as malleable as intelligence and possibly much more so. Roughly one half of rationality as we define it is not process but knowledge — knowledge that could be acquired by perhaps 70% or more of the population.
    Here’s what I mean: The model of individual differences in rational thought that West and I have put together partitions rationality into fluid and crystallized components by analogy to the Gf and Gc of the Cattell/Horn/Carroll fluid-crystallized theory of intelligence.
    Fluid rationality encompasses the process part of rational thought — the thinking dispositions of the reflective mind that lead to rational thought and action. Crystallized rationality encompasses all of the knowledge structures that relate to rational thought.
    These knowledge structures are the tools of rationality (probabilistic thinking, logic, scientific reasoning) and they represent declarative knowledge that is often incompletely learned or not acquired at all. But they can be learned by most and in this sense rationality is teachable.
    Rational thinking errors due to such knowledge gaps can occur in a potentially large set of coherent knowledge bases in the domains of probabilistic reasoning, causal reasoning, knowledge of risks, logic, practical numeracy, financial literacy, and scientific thinking (the importance of alternative hypotheses, etc.).

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    Do You Fall into This Happiness Trap? The False Choice

    It’s very easy to fall into the happiness trap of false choices–of thinking you can either do X or Y, and that’s the choice you have to make.
    False choices are tempting for a couple of reasons. First, instead of facing a bewildering array of options, you limit yourself to a few simple possibilities. Also, the way you set up the options often makes it obvious that one choice is the high-minded and reasonable choice, and one is not.
    But although false choices can be comforting, they can leave you feeling trapped, and they can blind you to other choices you might make.
    “I’d rather have a few true friends instead of tons of shallow friends.”
    You don’t have to choose between a “real” few and “superficial” many. I have intimate friends and casual friends. I have work friends whom I never see outside a professional context. I have childhood friends whom I see only once every ten years. I have several friends whose spouses I’ve never met. I have online friends whom I’ve never met face-to-face. These friendships aren’t all of equal importance to me, but they all add warmth and color to my life.
    “I think it’s more important to worry about other people’s happiness, instead of thinking only about myself and my own happiness.”
    Why do you have to choose? You can think about your happiness and other people’s happiness. In fact, as summed up in the Second Splendid Truth, thinking about your own happiness will help you make others happy. And vice versa!
    “Either I can be financially secure, or I can have a job I enjoy.”
    “If I don’t want to live in a chaotic, clutter-filled house, I need to get rid of all my stuff.”
    “I’d rather have an interesting life than a happy life.”
    “It’s more important to be authentic and honest than it is to be positive and enthusiastic.”
    Can you find a way to be authentically enthusiastic or honestly positive? In my experience, it’s often possible, though it can take a little extra work.
    “I can care about people, or I can care about possessions.”
    From Eleanor Roosevelt: “Happiness is not a goal; it is a by-product.”
    Happiness is a goal and a by-product. Nietzche explained this well: “The end of a melody is not its goal; but nonetheless, if the melody had not reached its end it would not have reached its goal either. A parable.
    One of my Secrets of Adulthood is “The opposite of a great truth is also true.” Sometimes, the falsity of a false choice comes from the fact that both choices are true. I have more time than I think and less time than I think. I can accept myself and expect more from myself. I want an empty shelf, and I want a junk drawer.
    In further illustration of that point, false choices themselves can sometimes be unhelpful but at other times, helpful. A false choice can be an indirect way for you to figure out what you really want; the way you’ve framed the question reveals the path you want to take.
    For instance, a reader emailed me and, after a long explanation of his situation, wrote, “So the question is: do I decide to risk everything to pursue a life of meaning and happiness, or do I stay stuck in my boring job?” That may have been a false choice, but in any event, it was pretty clear he’d made his decision!
    Can you think of examples of when you, or someone you know, fell into the trap of a false choice? What was it?

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    A 'big data' veteran talks fundamentals of big data infrastructure

    Martin Leach knows what it's like to be up to his neck in data. Until recently, he was CIO at The Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard, the biomedical research organization in Cambridge, Mass., that played a major role in mapping the human genome. There, he was responsible for more than 13 petabytes of storage and for compute "farms" totaling more than 10,000 cores.

    Martin LeachMartin Leach
    Before The Broad Institute, he led the IT team that supported the research group for discovery and pre-clinical sciences at Merck, the pharmaceutical giant. Now, in his new role as vice president of research and development IT at the biotech pioneer Biogen Idec, Leach leads the buildout of a new data sciences group. Formed to support Biogen Idec research, in time the group will assist business groups across the company on "big data" projects.
    Just before he left the not-for-profit Broad Institute for Biogen Idec, met with Leach to talk about the hurdles CIOs face in developing the big data infrastructure and skill sets required to get big data projects off the ground. According to Leach, challenges range from the $2 million to $4 million investment required for setup, to the paucity of technology experts willing to work with open source tools. And not to be overlooked is the high-and-low search for those elite name-my-price data scientists who can actually help companies make something of the data.
    You've consulted with CIOs on setting up a big data infrastructure. Where do you advise they start?
    Martin Leach: The starting point is trying to figure out what you're trying to achieve. Where is the biggest pain point or need that necessitates this? That's the first question -- not what technology or setup to buy.
    At the Broad Institute, what was the big pain point that necessitated a big data infrastructure?
    Leach: It was the volume of internal data being generated and the ability to first absorb the data, then do stuff with it. And there was a race -- the human genome project race -- between the public efforts, like Broad, and private efforts. So, the criticality was how can we do it faster and faster, because there is a driver on the outside. We either had to slow down or our infrastructure would fall over -- or find a way to go faster.
    I think the one thing they don't realize -- and this is everyone's problem -- is how you should take care of this data from the start. The less time you spend on curating, annotating and organizing the data up front will impact how you can use it down the road.
    Martin Leach,
    vice president of R&D IT, Biogen Idec
    This is the challenge I've also been hearing about from some of the biotechs now. They are outsourcing some of their experiments, having their data generated, and suddenly they have a couple hundred terabytes of data being delivered and they are like, 'Eek! What type of disks am I going to put them on, how am I going to ingest that data, where do I put it in a way that I can then compute on it, and then how the hell am I going to compute on it?' What I am seeing in life sciences organizations is that they are getting large ingestions of data and the first questions are, 'How do I ingest it and where do I put it?'
    So, where do they put it?
    Leach: Many organizations are bringing it in-house. Some, however, are keeping it outside as long as they can in the cloud. But these are still few and far between because of the risk. Most of the data in life sciences is associated with genetics and genomics or drugs or medicines or patient records. There is sensitivity as to storing it outside the firewall.
    So, after identifying why you need this data, the starting point is how do I store stuff? And then after that, the question is usually how do I compute on that? Is it going to come from internal compute capability, or do we send it back outside again and put it on, say, Amazon, and do some compute there? Which then leads people to second-guess why they brought it internally in the first place.
    Is ingesting data straightforward?
    Leach: The actual ingestion process is notstraightforward. Some organizations will deliver the data from the cloud, requiring a fast connection. Or some organizations will deliver the data on disk or deliver the data encrypted outright. You now need to figure out, for example, the problem of receiving some data in Boston but your data center is in North Carolina: How do I plug a couple of hundred terabytes into thecorporate network and get it onto a server so that I can actually do something with it?
    How are companies handling the ingestion of the data?
    Leach: In some cases, research is on a pile of disks and they are trying to figure out who the hell to talk to in IT to actually get it onto a server. In some cases, they actually try dragging it across their internal network, and then impact internal networking because they are moving a lot of data on a typical corporate network instead of just plugging it into a data center. Others try to work with IT.
    Part of this comes down to how are you partnering with IT to get stuff to the right place? I think the rate limiter is how well the consuming organizations work with their own IT departments and how flexible IT is. This kind of stuff is not the standard IT infrastructure anymore. Try doing big data on an Oracle database. Oracle will tell you that you can, and you can buy some external hardware to do that, but you need database experts that don't just know conventional relational database technology but also know NoSQL, [Apache] CouchDB, MongoDB -- the document stores, the key-value stores, the column stores.It comes down to having top-trained people who can deal with the bevy of open sourcetechnologies at the moment -- like Hadoop, which has companies popping up to provide it as a service, or OpenStack, a cloud environment for building your own cloud. So, having people that can embrace the open source technologies and provide the right support model -- that's one of the key things at the moment. And the big thing I am hearing is, 'Where do we source that talent?'
    Where do CIOs source that talent?
    Leach: One great source I heard from the CTO of eBay is economists. Economists love to wade in data, and they love trying to use the data to get the bottom of questions. There are a whole bunch of economists who are starting to open their eyes and say, 'Wow, this data in science and other places, we've never had our hands on this level of data before.'
    So, you have to find people who are willing to wade into big data and are open to the open source tools.
    Leach: I've seen groups of physicists working in the big data field. People who work on the [Large] Hadron Collider are wading in petabytes a day of data that gets driven off some of those machines. Physicists, economists, people who deal with derivatives -- the typical quants: They like data. I am going to try to dig into the economist world because that is a new source of data experts I hadn't thought about before.
    What's the biggest misconception companies have about what's required to do big data and, in particular, to leverage it with some analytics that are going to tell you something?
    Leach: I think the one thing they don't realize -- and this is everyone's problem -- is how you should take care of this data from the start. The less time you spend on curating, annotating and organizing the data up front will impact how you can use it down the road. We've found from statistics looking at our own work that essentially five months after a project completes, no one really looks at the data anymore. So, what do you do with that data two years from now? Have you deleted it? Are you going to regenerate it? The cost of storing data is constantly going down, so we just keep everything.
    So, what you are saying is that people are shortsighted when it comes to handling big data?
    Leach: It is shortsighted from IT, but also from the investigators. IT supports the investigators going in, but we don't think about the long-term consequences from an IT point of view -- but then neither do the investigators because they are just focused on the moment, of doing something on the data they just received.
    So, doesn't that defeat the purpose of big data, where you want to keep accumulating this stuff because the more you have, the more accurately you can predict and see patterns?
    Leach: Yes, it's only big if you can actually combine it.
    View the next item in this Essential Guide: Predictive analytics is hard to do; just ask a data scientist or view the full guide: From data gathering to competitive strategy: The evolution of big data

    View at the original source

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    Career in Rural Development

    Anyone working or studying in the field of international development is most likely familiar with ‘rural development’. While the term itself does not have a universal definition, broadly it refers to the development of rural areas in order to improve the quality of life and wellbeing of those residing in these areas. 

    Rural development is crucial to and intertwined with poverty reduction strategies and is therefore an important field within development.

    It is estimated that around three quarters of the world’s poor, living on less than one dollar a day, live and work in rural areas. Research also suggests that people in rural areas are twice as likely as those in urban areas to be poor. In India itself, the 2011 Census of India found that nearly 70% of the country’s population lives in rural areas. For those interested in or working in development, such numbers automatically suggest the importance of focusing efforts to make improvements in the quality of life of those in rural areas.

    Given its multi-disciplinary nature, rural development professionals encompass a wide range of different backgrounds and sectors such as education, food security, agri-business, healthcare, ICT, skill upgradation etc. with the goal of working towards social and economic improvements. Due to the fact that the majority of rural folk engage in farming and that agriculture is one of the primary sources of income, a large number of rural development initiatives are based on agricultural activities.  

    However, rural development initiatives also include a wide range of projects and different approaches through government initiatives, cooperatives, non-governmental organizations and social enterprises. There are also a number of private sector companies engaging in rural development activities as a part of their CSR initiative.

    With the very broad range of activities that fall under rural development, it would be beneficial for someone interested in pursuing a career in this field to narrow down your interests even further and decide how you would like to contribute to the sector. While experience working either directly on the field or at an organization that works in rural areas would be the ideal way through which you could narrow down your focus, following your passion, staying updated on current work through different entities and having informational interviews with experienced professionals in the field could also prove to be beneficial. 


    If you are passionate about the rights of women in rural areas and want to work on livelihoods issues, researching possibilities of working with a government entity or organization that facilitates women’s self-help groups could be one way you could go about narrowing down your focus. 

    While this is a very basic example, research (and experience) continues to show time and again that the productivity and quality of one’s work is better when a person is doing something they truly care about and is passionate about. Thus, choosing an organization whose work resonates with your values and an issue that you care about does matter.


    Knowing your particular area of focus also allows you to gain specific knowledge and experience or technical know-how relevant to that particular area which is crucial inensuring successful outcomes. 

    There are specific Masters programs in Rural Development for those interested as well as different training programs through which you could develop skills useful for rural development.

    It is clear that while significant headway has been made in initiatives aimed towards improving the standard of living, much work still remains to be done. The numbers clearly suggest that there is a need for more rural development professionals, however, having the rights skills, knowledge and understanding of local contexts is of equal importance.

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    Big news from OFA: More than 237,000 people have chipped in to own a piece of this organization. We've raised more than $13.1 million so far -- that's an average gift of $55 -- all toward building the biggest and smartest most truly grassroots movement.
    And get this: More than 3.1 million supports have taken action this year -- from making calls to tweeting to training new organizers. 814 Summer Fellows are hard at work across the country. Volunteers have held more than 6,500 local events, and have sharpened skills at our more than 500 grassroots trainings.
    Our action drives the news. We're raising the voices of real Americans in Washington, and standing alongside anyone who is doing the same wherever they live. OFA is putting pressure on lawmakers (of both parties.)
    We're fighting for progress, and none of that would be possible without you. Thanks.

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    Alarming Research Shows the Sorry State of US Higher Ed

    Alarming Research Shows the Sorry State of US Higher Ed

    I don't know exactly when, why, or how it happened, but important things are breaking down in the US higher education system. Whether or not this system is in danger of collapsing it feels like it's losing its way, and failing in its mission of developing the citizens and workers we need in the 21st century.
    This mission clearly includes getting students to graduate, yet only a bit more than half of all US students enrolled in four-year colleges and universities complete their degrees within six years, and only 29% who start two year degrees finish them within three years. America is last in graduation rate among 18 countries assessed in 2010 by the OECD. Things used to be better; in the late 1960s, nearly half of all college students got done in four years.
    Have graduates learned a lot? In too many cases, apparently not. One of the strongest bodies of evidence I've come across showing that students aren't acquiring many academic skills is work done by sociologists Richard Arum and Josipa Roksa and summarized in their book Academically Adrift: Limited Learning on College Campuses and subsequent research.

    Arum, Roksa, and their colleagues tracked more than 2300 students enrolled full time in four-year degree programs at a range of American colleges and universities. Their findings are alarming: 45% of students demonstrate no significant improvement on a written test of critical thinking called the Collegiate Learning Assessment (CLA) after two years of college, and 36% improved not at all after four years. And the average improvement on the test after four years was quite small.
    Consider a student who scored at the 50% percentile as a freshman. If he experienced average improvement over four years of college, then went back and took the test again with another group of incoming freshmen, he would score only in the 68th percentile. The CLA is so new that we don't know if these gains were bigger in the past, but previous research using other tests indicates that they were, and that only a few decades ago the average college student learned a great deal between freshman and senior years.
    These declines in learning and graduation rates come during a time of exploding costs. the Pew Research Center found that the price of a private college education tripled between 1980 and 2010, and that average student loan debt for bachelor's degree holders who had to borrow was more than $23,000 in 2011. This debt is not dischargeable even in bankruptcy, and is certainly not erased if you fail to graduate.
    Smart students from affluent homes and elite colleges and universities continue to do really well, but the rest of higher ed is sliding backward. Why is this? As was the case with the sub-prime crisis and subsequent economic meltdown, there is plenty of blame to go around. Many non-elite colleges have seen their enrollments jump in recent decades without similar increases in budgets, so resources per student have declined.
    It also seems, though, that colleges in general have stopped asking students to work as hard, and the students have been more than happy to take them up on that offer. Arum, Roksa, and their colleagues document that college students today spend only 9% of their time studying (compared to 51% on "socializing, recreating, and other"), much less than in previous decades, and that only 42% reported having taken a class the previous semester that required them to read at least 40 pages a week and write at least 20 pages total. 
    They write that "The portrayal of higher education emerging from [this research] is one of an institution focused more on social than academic experiences. Students spend very little time studying, and professors rarely demand much from them in terms of reading and writing."
    Here's my advice to recent high school grads (and their families): don't be part of this shameful and lazy bargain. Resolve to work hard, take tough classes, and graduate on time. Many changes are necessary in higher ed, most of which will take a great deal of time. But the most effective interventions can start the day you show up on campus. Crack the books, find good teachers, and take the education part of your education seriously.
    Arum and Roksa found that at every college studied some students show great improvement on the CLA. In general, these are students who spent more time studying (especially studying alone), took courses with more required reading and writing, and had more demanding faculty. So the blueprint is here. Please take my advice and spend some time this summer thinking about how you'll put it into action.

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    The Ambassador of France in India, HE Mr. François RICHIER has requested that as of July 14, 2013, Indian graduates of French higher education can benefit on their return to India from a fiveyear tourism, study or business visa in the Schengen area. This applies both to Alumni and future graduates.

    The circulation visa may be requested by a former student on his return to India on a planned short stay in France for tourism, study or business. The application for a visa will include the same items as a regular file. Alumni will need to include a copy of their French degree.

    On 14 July 2013, the webpage of the French Embassy in India devoted to visa applications will be modified to account for all the necessary information.

    This announcement was made on July 4 at the pre-departure session held at the Embassy in New Delhi. A wide press coverage was edited in Indian newspapers in English and local languages. Here are some links to articles of the most important newspapers :

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    Goodbye Stress, Hello Success

    Stress is a disease of the 21st Century. It axes years from your life. Stress affects work output, causing failure and unhappiness. We need to develop internal protection from the challenges of life. 

    You attribute your stress to an external agency. You believe your mother-in-law, boss or the weather causes your stress. Vedanta says that nothing in the world has the power to disturb you except yourself. You may eliminate the mother-in-law, change your job, re-locate to another country; your unrest will remain the same. Stress is an internal phenomenon. Hence the solution lies within.

    Just as mammals developed the capacity to maintain the same body temperature in all weather conditions, human beings have the ability of keeping the mind calm in turbulent circumstances by ‘attitude control’. 

    Make an assessment of the world in which you live. Evaluate your immediate family members, colleagues and friends, their strengths and weaknesses. Then their faults will amuse and not irritate you.

    calm, intellect sharp and actions brilliant. 

    What disturbs the mind? Negativity and desire. Tackle these internal causes and the mind remains serene even if a storm rages outside. The mind takes easily to negativity. The intellect helps withdraw the mind from negative channels and think positively. 

    Stress is defined as mental turbulence caused by unfulfilled desire. Hence in the Bhagwad Gita Krishna describes desire as enemy using four words– panthin, vairin, nitya vairin and shatru. 

    Yet you encourage and increase desire!

     Unbridled desire causes havoc. When fulfilled it leads to greed. Achieve still more and you get deluded with success. You envy those who have more than you and are arrogant towards those who have less. When desire is blocked your thoughts get deflected towards the obstruction as anger. 

    Uncontrolled desire prevents enjoyment. A calm mind is necessary to enjoy the good things of life. Desire comes in the way of meaningful relationships as you take the stand – 

    My way or the highway!

    Unrestrained desire results in failure. The mind meanders to the unproductive avenues of past worry and future anxiety. This may have caused the early dismissal of Roger Federer from the Wimbledon! The mind focuses on what you do not have and gets attached to what you have, causing tremendous mental agitation and suffering. 

    Rise above desire and enjoy the object of desire. Desire is the greatest obstacle to obtaining the object of desire. Crave for a thing and it will elude your grasp. Let go, it will come to you. There are three ways of handling desire. Desire management gives relief. Desire reduction gives comfort and desire elimination brings bliss. Scan your desire with the intellect.

    Fix a higher goal. As your mind is engaged in the higher pursuit, lower desires drop. Work dedicatedly, wholeheartedly,  detachedly. 

    Every action becomes perfect. You attain extraordinary success. You find happiness in the action itself. And you grow spiritually

    View at the original source

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    Asiana Airlines flight 214 crashed upon landing at San Francisco 

    International Airport on June 6, 2013. Here is an analysis of the 

    incident from a crises communications perspective, in the age of 

    social media and the connected traveller

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    Napolitano’s move from DHS to California schools chief draws protests 

    While many across the political spectrum are happy to see Homeland Security Secretary Janet Napolitano leave her job in Washington, some who live on the West Coast say they’d just as soon not see her out there, after it was revealed Friday that she’s poised to take over as head of the University of California school system.                            
     Ms. Napolitano angered both immigrant-rights groups and those who want to see a crackdown on illegal immigration, and irked privacy advocates from the right and left during her four years as head of Homeland Security.

    “University of California students can look forward to the same authoritarian management style Secretary Napolitano brought to the Department of Homeland Security, hardly a bastion of free speech and open government,” said Rep. Doug LaMalfa, a California Republican. “While I am pleased to see her leave Homeland Security, Napolitano’s views are entirely incompatible with the UC system’s history of civil liberties and the decision to appoint her is perplexing.”

    Those views were echoed by immigrant-rights advocates who predicted Ms. Napolitano’s move to run the school system, expected in September, will be “met with protests.”

    “UC should take the opportunity to thoroughly examine her record in Arizona and at DHS to see if it reflects the university’s values before they confirm her to this important post,” said Chris Newman, legal director for the Los Angeles-based National Day Laborer Organizing Network.

    Ms. Napolitano has been nominated to oversee the entire state university system, which has more than 200,000 students across its 10 campuses.

    Not all Californians were so unhappy at the prospect of Ms. Napolitano taking the university post.

    “Secretary Napolitano has the strength of character and an outsider’s mind that will well serve the students and faculty,” said Gov. Jerry Brown. “It will be exciting to work with her.”

    And House Minority Leader Nancy Pelosi said UC students “will benefit each and every day” from having her at the helm.

    “As the first woman to lead the UC system, Secretary Napolitano will offer a unique voice to this critical position,” Mrs. Pelosi said.

    Mrs. Napolitano, who was governor of Arizona before moving to Washington to run Homeland Security, also got a vote of confidence from those who knew her in the Southwest, including Sen. John McCain, an Arizona Republican.

    “We have had our share of disagreements during her time as secretary, but I have never doubted her integrity, work ethic or commitment to our nation’s security. The people of Arizona can be very proud of our former governor’s service, and I wish her all the best as she assumes leadership of the nation’s largest public university system,” he said.

    View at the original source

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    How can we encourage and support innovative and entrepreneurial behaviors + mindsets within our students?

    "My college experience is like starting a company where you are the product. You conceptualize, plan and design yourself to see a viable candidate when you graduate." ~ undergraduate student
    BIF is unpacking some interesting opportunities in the grey space between ourStudent and Entrepreneur Experience Labs. In this post, we begin with a question: 
    How can we encourage and support innovative and entrepreneurial behaviors and mindsets within our student populations?

    Context of the Question

    Research within the Student Experience Lab reveals that high-achieving students graduating from today’s secondary education system are not accustomed to failure. Many, in fact, do all that they can to avoid situations where failure might occur. Yet within the context of entrepreneurship, we know that pushing past what you know, or creating new ways of thinking cannot happen without experimentation—you have to act your way into knowing. Within this process, failure is expected. In fact it’s critical to adaptation and growth. Capturing what’s learned from each failed attempt is key to “knowing what not to do next time around or discovering another way down the road.” Work needs to be done to understand how to transition this form of entrepreneurial thinking into tangible learning experiences and environments both inside and outside the classroom.

    Things to Think About

    Traditionally, entrepreneurship has been associated with launching new businesses. However, many individuals and institutions are beginning to think of entrepreneurship as a vital life skill that extends far beyond the ability to launch a venture, a life skill that prepares individuals to deal with an ambiguous and uncertain future. To this end, we should dive into connected adjacencies and actively investigate a diverse range of models and systems that have “normalized the process of failure” and recognized the value experimentation and failure have on successful outcomes (e.g. sports systems, R&D labs, seed accelerators).
    From here, it's easy to imagine a set of experiments focused on translating those connected adjacencies into programmatic opportunities to develop “entrepreneurially-minded” students who are assessed against non-traditional academic-based metrics such as critical thinking, problem-solving and innovation skills, social networking and relationship building skills, teamwork and self-promotion skills. 
    Further still, thinking in earnest about what students need to succeed in today's global economy suggests new and very different education models - models where students go beyond problem-solving to generate the questions and problems that need to be solved. With iteration and risk-taking now core to the curriculum, we also have new and very different learning outcomes on our hands. 

    Examples in Action

    Fenway High School in Boston recently incorporated an experiential year-long entrepreneurship program into their core curriculum. While launching their own ventures over the course of the year, students learn basic skills in math, finance, marketing, and design. But more importantly they learn critical thinking and innovation skills, social networking and relationship building skills, teamwork and self-promotion skills. 
    For many students in the public school system, it’s the first time they’ve been asked and encouraged to think creatively about their own skills, interests, and ambitions. The benefits for the students, independent of their particular venture, are unquestionable.
    Ashoka’s Youth Ventures takes a similar approach but with youths as social innovators. The program inspires and invests in teams of young people to start and lead their own social ventures and is building a strong network of young changemakers across the world.
     A particularly unique aspect of this program is the emphasis on thinking entrepreneurially, but allowing such thinking to find application in a variety of different ways and contexts. By giving young people the means to know that they have the ability to change the environment around them, Ashoka believes that youth will gain the skills and understanding that they can be powerful long into their adult future.

    Implications to the System

    Investigating what instructional methods will be necessary to create student entrepreneurs can help teachers and schools begin to transition to new models, help teachers and students understand what achievement will look like in the near future, and inform policies for student assesment, student achievement and teacher effectiveness. It's a win:win all the way around.

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    What’s Your ROT – Return on Trust?

    W Edwards Deming
    W. Edwards Deming
    As leaders and managers we are programmed through education and experience to constantly measure and manage the results of our activities. Want to make a new capital investment? You better perform a cost/benefit analysis. Need to assess the effectiveness of a particular business strategy? Figure out the ROI – Return on Investment. If it’s important to our business then we have to be able to measure it. That’s our motto.
    But what about trust? How do you measure the impact of trust, positively or negatively, on your business? What’s your ROT – Return on Trust?
    Most leaders I speak with agree that trust is important but they often think it’s just another one of those “soft” people issues like engagement, empowerment, well-being, or morale. They think trust “just happens,” as if through some sort of relationship osmosis, and they certainly don’t think you can measure it.
    They’re wrong. You can measure trust, but you have to know where to look and understand how it shows up in organizations.
    What Trust Looks Like in Organizations
    • People keep their commitments and are consistent in their behavior
    • Risk taking is encouraged and rewarded
    • People feel safe in sharing their ideas and opinions
    • Team members have a shared sense of responsibility and commitment to the organization
    • People are treated equitably and ethically, regardless of their position or rank
    • The culture promotes and rewards honesty and ethical behavior
    • Senior leadership communicates transparently and authentically
    • Mistakes are viewed as “learning opportunities” rather than mortal failures
    • People feel valued and are engaged in their work
    • Productivity and creativity flourishes
    Return on Trust
    Interpersonal trust is developed through the use of very specific behaviors that demonstrate your competence, integrity, value for relationships, and dependability. Organizational trust is developed through the use of sound, common-sense business practices that align with the organization’s values, prioritize the value of human worth in the workplace, foster transparency and accountability, and emphasize customer loyalty and retention.
    Return on Trust   You can measure ROT by using common sense, as an executive of one of the world’s largest home improvement retailers shared with me. He said that in his 22 year experience with the company, the teams and stores that had the highest levels of trust consistently recorded the lowest people costs around turnover, accidents, and inventory shrink. They also achieved the highest revenues, profits, and employee engagement and customer satisfaction scores.
    You can also measure ROT by examining the financial performance of high-trust organizations. Research by the Great Places to Work Institute, publisher of the Fortune 100 Best Companies to Work For list, has shown that between 1997-2011, high trust companies outperformed the Russell 3000 and S&P 500, posting annualized returns of 10.32% versus 4.02% and 3.71%, respectively. Additionally, those best companies provide 4 times the returns than market average for comparative low-trust companies and typically experience a 50% lower turnover rate.
    Whether you see the everyday, common sense results of high levels of trust, or you evaluate the financial metrics of high-performing/high-trust companies, Return on Trust is something every leader should measure.

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    Corruption in Business, and the Importance of Ethics

    By Vivik Wadhwa
    During the early days of my career, I used to think that corruption was a third-world ill. Then I started my own company and saw the world from the vantage point of a CEO. I realized that corruption is everywhere, that ethics is a slippery slope, and that the decisions you make at every juncture define who you are.
    Here are examples of the many lessons I learned.
    I once needed to negotiate a distribution deal with a company that controlled market access to my products. The company’s CEO demanded that I give his spouse stock in my firm in return for his support. Doing so could have led to millions in sales; if I declined, we would lose the business opportunity.
    I was dumbfounded. In other parts of the world, things like this are common business practice. But this was in America. And I was dealing with a public company.
    I decided that I would rather sink my new startup than compromise my values. I declined the deal. My team was forced back to the drawing board to develop new technologies. Eventually we built a company with better products, for a larger market. And we were able to raise millions in financing from top investment firms.
    A key to achieving success is to assemble a strong and stable management team. We did a great job at recruiting the very best. Just as the company was taking off in a big way, I heard whispers about sexual harassment in our executive suite.
    After investigating, I found a potential problem with one of my senior managers. He was asking for sexual favors from vendors and potential recruits. Losing a person so critical to our operations would be a major setback, but I couldn’t tolerate a situation like this.
    I fired him and walked him out the door.
    Morale took a big hit, and the company lost significant momentum. But we survived. Later I learned of other ethical breaches by the same person. If I hadn’t made this decision, the fallout would likely have cost me the company—and my reputation.
    During the dot-com days, one could take just about any company public and reap fortunes. All you had to do was to make sky-high projections for growth, say you were in the Internet space, and go along with unscrupulous investment bankers and their analysts.
    My company’s investors wanted me do what many other CEOs had done and go for the IPO. But I worried that I would be misleading the public and filling my company’s coffers with the savings of unsuspecting grandmothers and struggling families. The analysts and bankers hype stocks and make them seem like certain bets. They rake in big fees, walk away, and disown responsibilities for the company’s projections. The losers are always the public.
    At close to a billion-dollar valuation, I chose not to take my company public.
    The dot-com bubble did burst a few months later. It decimated companies' values. Many families lost their savings. Most of the companies that had gone public also ceased to exist. When I think back, I know I could have made tens of millions of dollars and lived the high life. But I would not have been able to face the people whose money I was spending; I would not have been able to live with myself.
    Turning away from the investment bankers was the best decision I ever made.
    How can companies do better?
    Corporate executives and business owners need to realize that there can be no compromise when it comes to ethics and that there are no easy shortcuts to success. Their companies need ethics carefully sewn into their fabric.
    Business executives need to start by spelling out and communicating their values. Then they need to lead by example. This means getting rid of the bad apples and declining opportunities to sell one's soul for instant wealth.
    Corporate culture is built from the top down. Employees embrace the ethics and values of their leaders. You simply can't have one set of standards for management and another for staff. Every executive and employee needs to be held accountable.
    Employees need to be encouraged to speak up when they see wrongdoing: to “speak truth to power”. And when a mistake is made, it is better to deal with the immediate fallout than to allow it to build its own momentum. A corporate culture that doesn't allow for mistakes is destined for disaster. The best strategy is to encourage employees to come clean and learn from their errors.
    The worst approach pressures employees to hide information. A company can usually survive short-term snags; covering up a problem is likely to create even bigger problems later on. No truth remains hidden forever.
    Ultimately, long-term survival is about tying reward to behavior. The best organizations build ethics into their management and compensation systems. They reinforce corporate values by making them an integral part of how success is measured and rewarded.
    Remember that doing the right thing doesn't automatically bring success. But compromising ethics almost always leads to failure.

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